Sumatran Tiger or Panthera tigris sumatrae (Pocock, 1929) is one of the sub-species of tigers (Panthera tigris) in the world. Sumatran tigers is the last and remaining endemic sub-species in Indonesia after its two siblings which are Javan Tigers and Balinese Tigers got extinct.
Sumatran tiger occupy in the fragmented habitat across Sumatra island at the level between 0-3000 above sea level. Its type of habitat including primary forest, secondary forest or open bush. Sumatran tiger prefer to live in the area with less or without human interaction. Inside the forest, sumatran tigers dominates the higher area and close to the core area, supporting with high vegetation density and steeper slope in order to minimize the outside threats.
Including wild boar (Sus scrofa) and Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor). Sumatran tiger also eat other small animals such as monkey, deer and porcupine. However in the outside of its habitat (ex situ) like rehabilitation center or zoo, sumatran tiger is usually fed with chicken, pig, cow and goat.
The peak activity of sumatran tiger is at the early morning (05:00 – 06:00) and late afternoon (17:00 – 18:00) of the day. Sumatran tiger activity pattern is similar as its prey. Sumatran tiger is elusive means tend to avoid humans except at the urgent condition.
Sumatran tiger is a territorial and explore animal. It is rare to find tigers occupying one territory except for mother with her cubs or during mating period.
Sumatran tiger is listed as Appendix I CITES where international hunting and trading are prohibited in any ways. The export and import of its specimen are not allowed beside given special authorization for urgent purposes. Approximately less than 600 individuals in the wild, sumatran tigers has categorized as critically endangered species by IUCN Red List.
The number of tigers population is depend on various factors, one of them is a threat, either direct or indirectly. Human-tigers conflict is one of the direct and the most threat against tigers. Setting up the snare in the land forest and hunting are the most violations found in many cases. Conflict with human inside the tigers habitat can probably force tigers to move toward civilization and raise additional conflict.
Indirect threat is deforestation. Most of the tropical rainforest in Sumatra has converted into agriculture in order to support industrial development. This conversion causes decreasing area of tigers territory. Establishing highway and road has led forest to be fragmented that can rise human and tigers interaction.
Land conversion is also affected the scarcity of tigers prey. The decreasing of forest cause reducing number of animals for tigers to be eaten and drive tigers to find other prey within the settlement.